第二言語習得 (second language acquisition: SLA) に関する用語集 (2009年8月更新)

注:作成者:【H】・・洪、【HI】・・ 土方、【HS】・・ 清水遥、【I】・・ 印南、【IN】・・井上、【JY】・・吉田、【KI】・・ 北田、【KO】・・ 小泉、【KG】・・古賀、【KB】・・小早川、【KK】・・今野、【KN】・・中田、【KS】・・嶋田、【M】・・ 村田、【MK】・・小林、【MO】・・森本、【MU】・・村上、【Na】・・中川、【Ng】・・長橋、【O】・・大久保、【Oh】・・大塚、【S】・・ 清水、【ST】・・高波、【TA】・・田中、【YS】・・柴原、【W】・・渡邊 

  参考文献で、引用が多いものについては、最下段にまとめました
*が付いている用語については、卯城 & 佐久間 (訳注) (1998) 『第二言語習得の研究』(大修館書店)の「付録(専門用語解説)」で解説されていますので、御参照ください。



ability (能力)
accidental gap (偶然の空白)
accommodation theory(適応理論)
acculturation
acculturation model
accuracy (正確さ)
achievement test(達成度判定テスト)
acquired dyslexia(獲得性失読症)(NEW)
action research (アクション・リサーチ) (NEW)
activation (活性化)
acquisition (習得・獲得)*
adaptive control of thought (ACT) model
additive bilingualism (加算的バイリンガリズム)
adjacency pair(隣接ペア)
adjunct programs
affect (感情)
Affective Filter Hypothesis(情意フィルター仮説) (NEW)
age of acquisition theory
analytic syllabus(分析シラバス)
anomie
anxiety (不安)
appeal for assistance
applied linguistics (応用言語学)
applied SLA
approximative system
aptitude (適性)*
Aspect Hypothesis (アスペクト仮説)
assessment of L2 proficiency (第2言語熟達度の測定)
assimilation
AS-unit (ASユニット)
attention (注意)
attribution theory 
attrition
attitude
audiolingualism
authenticity (真正性)
automatic processing (自動的処理)
automaticity
automatization/automaticity (自動化)
avoidance
avoidance strategy
baby talk (ベビー・トーク)/caretaker talk (養育者言葉)/motherese (母親語)
Bachman and Palmer model (バックマン・パーマーモデル)
basic interpersonal communication skills (BICS: 基本的対人伝達能力)
behaviorism
behaviorist position
Beliefs About Language Learning Inventory (BALLI)
bilingual education
body language
careful style
carrot and stick hypothesis
case grammar(格文法)
categorization(カテゴリー化)(NEW)
ceiling effect (天井効果)/ floor effect (床面効果)
clarification requests
closed question
cloze test (クローズテスト)
cocktail party phenomenon/effect (カクテルパーティー効果/現象)
code switching
cognitive academic language proficiency (CALP: 認知・学習言語能力)
cognitive theory
cognitive variables (認知的要因)& affective variables (情緒的要因)
Common European Framework (CEF)
common underlying proficiency (共有基底言語能力)
communicative competence (伝達能力)
Community Language Learning (NEW)
communicative language teaching(コミュニカティブ言語教育)
communicative language test (NEW)
Communicative Writing(コミュニカティブ・ライティング)
communication strategy (コミュニケーション方略・伝達方略・意思伝達ストラテジー)*
competence
competition model (競合モデル)
compound/coordinate bilingualism
comprehensible input
comprehensible output hypothesis
comprehension
comprehension approach (NEW)
comprehension checks
comprehension communication task
complexity (複雑さ)
computer assisted instruction (コンピュータ利用の教育)
confirmation checks
connotation(内包:含蓄的意味)
consciousness raising (意識化)
conscious transfer
consolidated alphabetic phase (NEW)
context availability model
contrastive analysis
contrastive grammar(対照言語学)
contrastive rhetoric(対照修辞学)
control group (←→experimental group) (NEW)
controlled composition/ writing(制限作文)
controlled processing
Controlled-to-Free Approach
convergence
coordinate
Cooperative Language Learning(協同言語学習) (NEW)
corrective feedback (修正フィードバック)
counter balance model (カウンターバランスモデル)
creative construction
creole
critical period hypothesis (CPH)
crossing the rubicon
cross-section(al) study (←→longitudinal study) (NEW)
C-Test
curriculum(カリキュラム)
debilitating anxiety
declarative knowledge (宣言的知識)
decreolization
deep dyslexia(深層性失読症) (NEW)
deep structure
descriptive grammar(記述文法)
developmental dyslexia (発達性失読症) (NEW)
developmental order (発達順序)
developmental sequence
dichotic listening procedure
dictation (ディクテーション)
dictogloss(ディクトグロス)
Differential Item Functioning
direct attention
direct method (直接教授法)
discrete-point test
display question
distractor(錯乱肢)
divergence
dual-mode system/dual-coding
dual storage model(二重貯蔵モデル) (NEW)
dyslexia (失読症)
echoic question
ellipsis(省略)
encoding
epistemic question
error (誤り)
error analysis
error-avoiding
error-inducing
ethnography (エスノグラフィー)
exemplar-based
expectancy-value theory (期待価値理論)
explicit knowledge (明示的知識)
exposure
expressive question
facilitating anxiety
feature focused
feedback options
field dependence (場依存)
field independence (場独立)
first language
flooding
flow (フロー)
fluency (流暢さ)
fMRI (機能的MRI)
focus (焦点)
focused communication
focused task
focus on form
focus on forms
focus on meaning
foreigner talk (外国人言葉)
foreign language
foreign language classroom anxiety scale
forgetting (忘却)
form-focused question
formulas/formulaic speech (決まり文句)
fossilization
Free Writing(フリー・ライティング)
full alphabetic phase (level) (NEW)
function word(機能語)
Generalizability Theory (一般化可能性理論)
generalized context model (GCM) (NEW)
global error/ local error(全体的誤りと局所的誤り)
goal orientation theory (目標志向性理論)
Grammar-Syntax-Organization approach
grammar teaching (文法指導)
grammar-translation method (文法訳読法)
grammaticality judgment task (文法性判断タスク)
grammatical syllabus(文法シラバス)
graphology 
guessing(当て推量)
Hawthorne effect(ホーソン効果)
here and now
heritage/community language (継承語)
hierarchical structure (of categories)(カテゴリー階層構造)(NEW)
high-stakes test (利害関係の大きいテスト)
hypothesis testing
idiom-principle(非選択原理)
illocutionary act
immersion program
implicit knowledge
incidental learning (付随的学習、偶発的学習)
indirect negative evidence
individual learner differences (IDs: 学習者の個人差)
information-gap task (インフォメーション・ギャップ・タスク)
innatist position, innativist position
inner speech
input-oriented
input enhancement
input hypothesis
input/output (インプット・入力/アウトプット・出力)*
instructed second language acquisition
instrumental motivation
intake
integrative motivation
integrative test
Interaction Hypothesis(インタラクション仮説/相互交流仮説)
interactional modification
interactionism
interactionist position
interdependency principle (相互依存原則)
interface position (インターフェイスの立場)
interlanguage (IL)
internal cause hypothesis
international posture (国際的志向性)
intrinsic hypothesis
Item Response Theory (項目応答理論)
Japanese orthography/writing system (日本語の正書法/書記体系)
kanji (漢字)
kanji learning (漢字学習)
kanji/non-kanji learner (漢字系/非漢字系学習者)
kanji teaching for learners of Japanese (日本語学習者のための漢字教育)
L1
L2
laboratory study (実験的手法)
language analytic ability
language anxiety
language acquisition device (LAD: 言語習得装置)
language awareness(言語意識)
language education policy(言語教育政策)
language faculty
language knowledge (言語知識)
language maintenance(言語保持)
language proficiency
language shift(言語移行)
language transfer
language universals(言語普遍性)
latency(潜時)
lateralization
learnability/learnability model (学習可能性/学習可能性モデル)
learner autonomy (自律性)
learner belief (学習観)
learner performance options
learning
learning curve (学習曲線)
learning plateau(学習高原)
learning strategy (学習ストラテジー)
Learning in tandem (タンデム学習)
lemmatization(見出し語化)(NEW)
linguistics applied
linguistic category(言語カテゴリー)
Linguistic Coding Difference Hypothesis
literacy(リテラシー)
magical number seven, plus or minus two (7±2/マジックナンバー7)
maintenance bilingual education
majority language/minority language
markedness/unmarkedness
matched guise procedure
meaning-focused instruction (意味重視の指導)
meaningful learning (有意味学習)
mediation
memory
mentalist theory (心的理論)
message-focused question
metacognitive knowledge (メタ認知知識)
metacognitive strategy (メタ認知ストラテジー)
metalingual knowledge
metaphor(隠喩・メタファー) 
microgenesis
microteaching(マイクロティーチング,模擬授業)(NEW)
mime
minimal pair
mistake (間違い)
modern language aptitude test (MLAT)
modularity (モジュラー性)
monitoring (モニター)
monitor theory
monolingual
morphology
mother tongue/ native language(母語)
motivation* (動機づけ)
multilingual
multiple intelligences
native speaker (母語話者)
nativist position
natural approach
natural method
naturalistic second language acquisition
needs analysis(ニーズ分析)
negative evidence
negotiation of form (形式交渉・形式のやりとり)
negotiation of meaning (意味交渉・意味のやりとり)
neurolinguistics
non-interface position
non-kanji learner
non semantic reading (NEW)
norm-referenced testing(集団規準準拠テスト)
noticing(認識化)
obligatory occasion analysis (NEW)
onomatopoeia(オノマトペ)
open-choice principle (自由選択原理)
open question
operating principle model (操作原理モデル)
options in grammar teaching (文法指導における選択肢)
orthographic depth/transparency (正書法の深度/透明度)
orthographic depth hypothesis (ODH; 正書法の深度仮説)
orthography (正書法)
orthography teaching in SLA (SLAにおける正書法指導)
other-regulation
output
output-oriented
output hypothesis (アウトプット [出力] 仮説)
overgeneralization
parameter (パラメータ)/principle (原理)
paraphrase
partial alphabetic phase (level) (NEW)
pattern
pattern practice (文型練習)
Pedagogical Grammar Hypothesis (教育文法仮説) (NEW)
peer-teaching/learning/feedback
performance
personal characteristics (個人的特性)
phoneme
phonemic coding ability
phonological dyslexia(音韻性失読症)(NEW)
phonology
pidgin
Pimsleur language aptitude battery (PLAB)
planning time
plateau phenomenon (高原現象)
portfolio(ポートフォリオ)
positive evidence/negative evidence (肯定証拠/否定証拠)
possible self (可能な自己)
post-test (事後テスト/ポスト・テスト) (NEW)
PPP Approach
practice
practice effect (練習効果) (NEW)
pragmatics (語用論)
pre-alphabetic phase (level) (NEW)
prescriptive grammar(規範文法) 
principle
private and inner speech
probabilistic language model (確率的言語モデル)
Problem-Solving Strategy (問題解決ストラテジー) (NEW)
proceduralization
procedural knowledge
procedural syllabus(手順シラバス)
process writing(プロセス・ライティング)
pro-drop
production
production communication task
proficiency scale (熟達度の尺度)
proficiency test (熟達度テスト) (NEW)
proposition (命題)
prototype(プロトタイプ)
psycholinguistics
psychological distance (心理的距離)/social distance (社会的距離)
pushed output
pygmalion effect(ピグマリオン効果)
question type (質問のタイプ)
readiness
recast (言い直し)
reception
referential question
register
reliability (信頼性)
RP (Received Pronunciation)
restructuring (再構築)
resultative hypothesis
rhetorical question
rote learning(機械的学習)
routine
rubric (指示)
rule-based
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (サピア・ウォーフ仮説)
scientific grammar(科学文法)
scope (作用域)
second language acquisition (SLA; 第二言語習得)*
segmentation (NEW)
selective attention(選択的注意) (NEW)
self assessment (self evaluation; 自己評価)
self confidence (自信)
self-determination theory (自己決定理論)
self-efficacy (自己効力感)
self-management
self-regulation
Self-teaching Hypothesis(自己学習仮説)
semantic prosody
sensory register(感覚登録器) (NEW)
sentence combining(文結合)
separate underlying proficiency (分離基底言語能力)
silent period (沈黙期)
situational syllabus(場面/状況シラバス)
skill-building hypothesis
SLA applied
social distance
sociocultural perspective
socioeconomic class(社会経済的要因)
sociolinguistics
spacing effect (分散効果)
speech act
speech style
statistics for natural language (言語統計)
strategic competence (ストラテジー能力)
strong interface position
Stroop effect(ストループ効果)
Structure Equation Modeling(SEM: 構造方程式モデリング)
style continuum
style shifting
submersion program
subordinate
subset principle (部分集合の原理)
subskills (下位技能)
subtractive bilingualism (減算的バイリンガリズム)
superordinate(上位語)
surface dyslexia (表層性失読症) (NEW)
surface structure
syllable-monitoring task (NEW)
syntactic analysis (構文解析)
syntax
synthetic syllabus(総合シラバス)
systematic gap (体系上の空白)
target language (TL: 目標言語・対象言語)*
task (タスク)
task-based instruction
task-based syllabus(タスク中心シラバス)
task difficulty and complexity (タスクの困難度と複雑性)
task motivation (タスクモチベーション)
teachability hypothesis (教授可能性仮説・指導可能性仮説)
teacher talk (教師言葉)
team teaching (NEW)
TESOL
testing effect (テスト効果) (NEW)
test method effects (テスト方法の影響)
test-taking strategy
test-wiseness
text grammar
there and then
Tolerance of ambiguity
topic syllabus(話題シラバス)
Total Physical Response (TPR)
transfer
transformational-generative (TG) grammar
transitional bilingual education (TBE)
triangulation (NEW)
TSI (Transactional Strategic Instruction) (NEW)
T-unit (Tユニット)
type/ token (タイプ・型/ トークン)
uniqueness principle (独自性の原理)
Universal Grammar (UG: 普遍文法)
usage (用法)
use (使用)
U-shaped development
utterance
valence theory(結合価理論)
validity (妥当性)
variability (可変性・異変性)
variable
variable rule
vector-space model (ベクトル空間法) 
vernacular style
voice (態)
washback effect(波及効果)
weak interface position
weighting (重み付け)
Whole Language (ホール・ランゲージ) (NEW)
willingness to communicate
willingness to communicate (WTC)
word class (part of speech) (NEW)
world Englishes(世界の英語) (NEW)
writing system (書記体系)
zero position
zone of proximal development (ZPD)


〈入門書〉
Ellis, R. (1997). Second language acquisition. Oxford University Press.
  (授業のハンドアウト
  http://www.u.tsukuba.ac.jp/~ushiro.yuji.gn/Seminar/syllabus01.html )

〈引用が多いものの参考文献〉
・Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford University Press.
  (授業のハンドアウト
  http://www.u.tsukuba.ac.jp/~ushiro.yuji.gn/Doctor/syllabus01.html )
・Ellis, R. (1997). SLA research and language teaching. Oxford University Press.
  (授業のハンドアウト
  http://www.u.tsukuba.ac.jp/~ushiro.yuji.gn/MA/syllabus01.html )
・Mitchell, R., & Myles, F. (1998). Second language learning theories. U.K.: Arnold.
・岡秀夫(監訳). (1999). 『外国語教育学大辞典』. 東京:大修館書店. (Johnson, K., & Johnson, H. (1998). Encyclopedic dictionary of applied linguistics. Blackwell.訳)
・島岡丘 (監修). 卯城祐司 & 佐久間康之 (訳注). (1998). 『第二言語習得の研究--5つの視点から』. 東京:大修館書店. (Beebe, L. M. (1988). Issues in second language acquisition―Multiple perspectives. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.訳)
・白畑知彦, 冨田祐一, 村野井仁, & 若林茂則. (1999). 『英語教育用語辞典』. 東京:大修館書店.
・Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford University Press.
  (授業のハンドアウト
  http://www.u.tsukuba.ac.jp/~ushiro.yuji.gn/MA/syllabus991.html
  http://www.u.tsukuba.ac.jp/~ushiro.yuji.gn/MA/syllabus992.html )